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I'm looking for advice on how to insulate gray and black tanks that are exposed to the open air. What materials to consider. My fresh water tank is under the sofa and appears to be protected from direct exposure to the underside.  Thank you.
I would try foam boards cut to size and glued on with large zip ties around them. But I don't think it will make much difference if you are actually using the RV or motorhome, as opposed to keeping it outside in storage all winter.

On my old motorhome, which was parked in some very cold temps all winter, I used heat tape around the gate valves, because they can be damaged by freezing temps, but didn't worry about the tanks themselves....they have some 'give' which prevents them from cracking. 

It has to be really cold to freeze a black tank, and a gray tank is normally getting enough warmish water from showers and such to keep it from freezing...on the other hand, if you are camping in an area that never sees temps above freezing for a week or more, then it might be a concern...the gate valves will freeze first and then you can't actually open them.
Frozen gate valves? Think hairdryer if you have AC power for it. The problem is when the day and night temps are below freezing for more than a day or two. It is the gate valve that is usually causing issues, and pulling it with great force can sometimes break it off. Mine has been covered with Reflectix insulation, and in the colder temps, have seen wind chills below zero this winter, anti-freeze in the tank, learned that for the tanks, one can use the blue stuff which is cheaper, but the blue CANNOT be used if you are winterizing an RV (pink stuff only) running it through the fresh water system. Anyone going to do long stretches in very cold temps needs to do quite a bite of research on all aspects of surviving the cold.
move somewhere warmer. if you can't do that, heaters are made for the tanks but of course take power to work. highdesertranger
(03-05-2018, 09:10 AM)highdesertranger Wrote: [ -> ]move somewhere warmer.  if you can't do that,  heaters are made for the tanks but of course take power to work.  highdesertranger
"Move somewhere warmer" is the best advice for me. :-)
Insulating holding tanks without a way to heat the tanks would be a waste of time and money if camping in sustained below freezing temps.

My holding tanks in my 5th wheel trailer/ski chalet parked near Sun Peaks, B.C. ski resort, are inside an insulated belly pan with a duct from the propane furnace as a heat source. The dump valves are more than a foot from outside walls and are accessed via a 6"x6" access door.  I have added a small electric space heater as an alternate heat source. All of the water lines have electric heat tape affixed to them.

Many RVs claim to be 4 season capable but they are not. Mine is.